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Differences in 3D Printing Performance of 304L Stainless Steel Powder Prepared by Nitrogen and Argon Atomization


3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, has gained significant attention in recent years due to its ability to create complex geometries with high precision. One crucial aspect of this technology is the selection of suitable powders for printing various materials. In the case of stainless steel, the atomization process plays a vital role in determining the quality and performance of the final printed parts. This article aims to explore the differences in 3D printing performance of 304L stainless steel powder prepared by nitrogen and argon atomization.

Atomization Process

The atomization process involves the conversion of molten metal into fine powder particles through rapid cooling. Nitrogen and argon are commonly used as atomization gases due to their inert properties and availability. However, the choice of atomization gas can significantly impact the characteristics of the resulting powder, including particle size distribution, morphology, and flowability.

Particle Size Distribution

Particle size distribution is a critical factor that affects the powder’s flowability and packing density, which, in turn, influence the printing process. Studies have shown that stainless steel powder prepared by nitrogen atomization tends to have a narrower particle size distribution compared to that prepared by argon atomization. This narrower distribution can result in improved flowability and packing behavior, leading to better printing performance.

Powder Morphology

The morphology of the powder particles also plays a vital role in 3D printing performance. Nitrogen-atomized stainless steel powder exhibits spherical particle shapes with smooth surfaces, while argon-atomized powder typically shows irregular shapes with rough surfaces. The smoother surface of nitrogen-atomized powder promotes better powder flow during printing and reduces the risk of particle agglomeration, ensuring uniform deposition and layer formation.

Flowability and Packing Density

Flowability refers to the ability of powder particles to flow freely and consistently during printing. It depends on factors such as particle shape, size distribution, and interparticle friction. Nitrogen-atomized stainless steel powder, with its spherical particle shape and narrower size distribution, generally exhibits higher flowability compared to argon-atomized powder. The improved flowability allows for more accurate control of material deposition, resulting in high-quality printed parts.

Packing density, on the other hand, refers to how densely the powder particles can pack together. In general, powder particles with a narrower size distribution tend to have higher packing density. Therefore, nitrogen-atomized stainless steel powder, which typically possesses a narrower distribution, can achieve higher packing densities than argon-atomized powder. Higher packing density contributes to better part density and mechanical properties in the final printed parts.


In conclusion, the choice of atomization gas, either nitrogen or argon, significantly affects the 3D printing performance of 304L stainless steel powder. Nitrogen-atomized powder exhibits a narrower particle size distribution, spherical morphology, improved flowability, and higher packing density compared to argon-atomized powder. These characteristics contribute to better print quality, part density, and mechanical properties. Understanding these differences is crucial for optimizing the selection and processing of stainless steel powders for 3D printing applications. Further research and development in this area will lead to improved printing processes and the production of high-quality stainless steel parts.

Differences in 3D printing performance of 304L stainless steel powder prepared by nitrogen and argon atomization